Collection Summary

Creator: Howard Klee
Title: The Papers of Howard Klee re Amoco - U. S. EPA Pollution Prevention Project of Yorktown, Virginia
Accession: MSS 2012-04
Description: 7 boxes, (2.5 linear ft.)
Photograph Collection: View 0 digitized photographs
Digitized Content: 5 objects

Collection Description & Arrangement

In recent years, environmental regulation has come to the forefront with such cases as Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency (2007) and Exxon Shipping Co. v. Baker (2008).  However, environmental regulation has a longer history in Virginia.  In 1989, Amoco Oil Company (Amoco) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agreed to a voluntary, joint pollution-prevent project that would focus on Amoco’s refinery in Yorktown, Virginia.  Yorktown was an especially exciting place to undertake this study, as it would provide the opportunity to study pollution prevention at a working industrial facility.  The Amoco - U.S. project was one of the first of its kind, combining efforts of a major oil company and the EPA to determine methods to reduce air, land, and water pollution during the oil refinement process. 

 

Over the course of nearly six years, a number of workgroups provided oversight and direction as the project used a multi-media sampling program to identify potential pollutions sources at the Amoco Refinery in Yorktown.  The work groups’ findings were peer reviewed, and workshops were convened in which persons from various professional backgrounds met at the facility to conduct research and provide input into the project.  In addition, separate engineering projects identified the major sources of pollution, and they later simulated the effects of implementing pollution-reduction measures.  Engineers worked together to assess environmental impacts, costs, risk reduction for people living near the facility, and any liability that could be incurred by the refinery. 

 

A final executive summary issued by the project explained that it had hoped to accomplish a set of goals for pollution prevention, including: the inventory of refinery releases, including their “chemical type, quantity, source, and medium of release”; the development of various options to reduce those releases; the ranking of various options based on a set of criteria and professional perspectives; the identification and evaluation of factors that inhibit pollution prevention in practice; and the enhancement of the “participants’ knowledge of refinery and regulatory systems.”  The accompanying data records the success of the project.

 

In addition to being one of the first projects to engage both corporate and government efforts to reduce pollution, it also exhibited a nuanced multidisciplinary effort, involving participants from a variety of disciplines in the sciences and humanities, as well as concerned members of the Yorktown community. 

 

Howard Klee, one of Amoco’s co-manager on the project, donated his collection of materials, including documents and photographs, from his experience on this project. The collection reflects the multidisciplinary effort of the project, as it not only includes scientific analyses and engineering reports, but also the executive summaries written across the years.  The project is also a visual one.  Included in the collection are unique data maps of the refinery, as well as a set of photographs taken between 1989-1992 that reflect the work of the field scientists, engineers, and academic participants.  Roundtable discussions featuring locals affected by the refinery and potential pollution reduction are available on digital video (converted from their original VHS formats), and local Virginia news reports surrounding the project are also available digitally.  Finally, the collection contains Klee’s personal correspondence and handwritten notes throughout the various stages of the project. 

Biographical & Historical Information

 

Howard Klee is currently a director of two programs for the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD): the Cement Sustainability Initiative and Tire Industry Project. 

 

Klee graduated from Williams College with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry, and he went on to earn a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from MIT. 

 

During the years of the Amoco-U.S. EPA Pollution Prevention Project, Klee worked as a co-manager for Amoco.  Following his work at Amoco, Klee worked with Chevron and BP, serving both executive and business functions that involved strategic planning, business development, environmental affairs, and manufacturing. 

 

In addition, Klee served on President Clinton’s Council on Sustainable Development, and he also worked as the director for the Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment.  As well, Klee has experience in academia, holding faculty appointments at the University of California-Davis, the University of Michigan, and the University of Geneva.

 

After the conclusion of the U.S.-EPA Pollution Prevention Project, Klee authored a number of texts related to the project, and in 2012 BiblioGov published a book by the U.S. EPA related to the Yorktown project, which included many of Klee’s findings. 

 

*Biographical information cited from WBCSD website

 

Acquisition Information

Date Received 2012
Donor Information These files were donated by Mr. Howard Klee by recommendation of Prof. Jonathan Cannon.

Content List

 

Box 1

  • 1990, Sept.; Amoco/US EPA Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown Refinery Project Workplan, Sept. 1990 [1 of 2].  [Executive summary, background and project goals, data collection, data analysis, project schedule, project budget, maps]
  • Amoco/US EPA Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown Refinery Project  Workplan, Sept. 1990 [2 of 2]. [Project budget, appendecies and maps, including site geology and hydrogeology, chemical protocols, sampling locations, plot plans, surface water samples, solid waste samples, groundwater and soil samples].
  • 1990; Correspondence: Yearly through 1990 [Presentation materials, correspondence, sampling procedures, results, statistical analyses, project outlines, and summaries].
  • 1991/Jan.; Report of Observations: Thought Leader Interviews and Focus Groups, Yorktown Refinery Public Perception Study, Jan. 1991 [1 of 2]. [Summary, thought-leader interviews, focus groups, interview questionnaire, discussion guide, York County background, appendix]
  • Report of Observations: Thought Leader Interviews and Focus Groups, Yorktown Refinery Public Perception Study, Jan. 1991 [1 of 2]. [Phone survey data]

 

Box 2

  • 1991; Amoco/US EPA Pollution Prevention Workshop, Mar., 25-27, 1991, Williamsburg, VA [1 of 2] [Update, handouts, presentations].
  • Amoco/US EPA Pollution Prevention Workshop, Mar. 25-27, 1991, Williamsburg, VA [2 of 2]  [Breakout sessions: groundwater, ranking, permitting, obstacles/incentives, practices, attendees].
  • Groundwater and soil data, March 1991 [1 of 3]. [Summary (including maps and overhead projector slides), site description, study approach, results, conclusions].
  • Groundwater and soil data, March 1991 [2 of 3]. [Appendix: chemical compounds, doxins and furans, boring logs, groundwater data].
  • Groundwater and soil data, March 1991 [3 of 3]. [Appendix cont'd: soil data, surface water data, sampling plan, presentation slides, communication]
  • 1991; Surface Water Data, August 1991 [1 of 2]. [Summary, water system, sampling/analysis, results, conclusions, references, analytical information]
  • Surface Water Data, August 1991 [2 of 2]. [Analytical results, dioxins/furans data, dioxin report, communications]
  • 1991; Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, VA Refinery, November 19, 1991--PEER REVIEW.  [Background, Meeting 1 notes, Meeting 2 notes, Meeting 3 notes]
  • 1991; Measurement of Fixed Gases and Hydrocarbon Emissions Rates for the Blowdown Vents at the Amoco/Yorktown Refinery, November 1991. [Introduction, technical approach, measurements and results, conclusions, references, statistical/data tables with HK notes]

 

Box 3

  • 1991, Dec.; Executive Summary [Project goals, lessons and results, references, scientific tables and figures]. Abstracts, project goals, project organization (includes staffing and budget), lessons and results (re: refinery release inventory, reducing releases, ranking alternatives, obstacles and incentives, education, communications, working relationships), recommendations, references, tables (project components and samples)
  • 1991-1992; Executive Summary, Dec. 1991, Updated May 1992 [Project goals, lessons and results, references, scientific tables and figures].  Abstracts, project goals, project organization (includes staffing and budget), lessons and results (re: refinery release inventory, reducing releases, ranking alternatives, obstacles and incentives, education, communications, working relationships), recommendations, references, tables (project components and samples)
  • 1991-1992; Summary of Refinery Release Inventory (Final inventory) [1 of 2]. Summary, air quality, and surface water sampling data.
  • 1991-1992; Summary of Refinery Release Inventory (Final inventory) [2 of 2]. Subsurface sampling, solid waste sampling, public perception study, multimedia assessment of releases, appendix (includes refiner map with all sampling locations)
  • 1992; Project Summary, January 1992. Project summary, refinery release inventory, options identification and analysis, ranking method and results, obstacles and incentives, references, appendices.
  • 1992; Project Summary with HK notes, January 1992. HK notes re: project summary, refinery release inventory, options identification and analysis, ranking method and results, obstacles and incentives, references, appendices
  • 1992; Risk Analysis Draft Report, prepared February 21, 1992 by Abt Associates. [HK notes on background, data, assessment, and forthcoming executive summary.]

 

Box 4

  • 1992; Air Quality Data Report, prepared by D.N. Blewitt, J.W. Keating, and J.F. John, July 30, 1992 [1 of 2]. Introduction, source sampling, ambient measures, emission inventory, accuracy of the emission inventory for BTEX
  • 1992; Air Quality Data Report, prepared by D.N. Blewitt, J.W. Keating, and J.F. John, July 30, 1992 [2 of 2]. Exposure modeling, conclusions, references, appendices and tables
  • 1992; Correspondence: January 1992-February 1992 [letters, report drafts, meeting notes]. Letters, report drafts, meeting notes.
  • 1992; Correspondence: February 1992-September 1992 [letters, report drafts, meeting notes, presentations]    letters, report drafts, meeting notes, presentations
  • 1992; Correspondence: September 1992-December 1992 [letters, report drafts, meeting notes, presentations] letters, report drafts, meeting notes, presentations
  • 1992-1995; Project summaries, reviews, and related correspondence [1 of 2]. Summaries, reviews, and related correspondence
  • 1992-1995; Project summaries, reviews, and related correspondence [2 of 2]. Summaries, reviews, and related correspondence

 

Box 5

  • 1993; Effective Environmental Strategies: Opportunities for Innovation and Flexibility Under Federal Environmental Laws [Draft written June 1993].  Executive summary, research ana analysis re: Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Multimedia implications, Toxic Substance Control Act, Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, Safe Drinking Water Act
  • 1993; Projects, Evaluations, and Rankings: Prepared for US EPA, Project Manager Dr. Mahesh Podar, July 1993 [1 of 2]. Executive summary, project criteria selection (includes Williamsburg workshop alternatives), project characterization (technical characteristics, cost factors, human health and ecological effects)
  • 1993; Projects, Evaluations, and Rankings: Prepared for US EPA, Project Manager Dr. Mahesh Podar, July 1993 [2 of 2]. Project ranking (criterion ranking, methology for multi-criteria ranking, development of criteria weights, results of multi-criteria ranking, conclusions), references, appendices
  • 1993; Effective Environmental Strategies: Opportunities for Innovation and Flexibility Under Federal Environmental Laws [Official]. HK notes and markup: executive summary, research ana analysis re: Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Multimedia implications, Toxic Substance Control Act, Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, Safe Drinking Water Act
  • 1993; Yorktown Refinery Risk Reduction Benefits of Pollution Prevention Options.  [Airborne exposure pathway analysis, waterborne exposure pathyway analysis, deposition pathway analysis, conclusions and recommendations, appendices]
  • 1993; Correspondence and Draft Materials: Yearly Through 1993 [letters, presentations, news articles, report drafts with HK notes, and statistical analyses with HK notes] [1 of 2].  Letters, presentations, news articles, report drafts with HK notes, and statistical analyses with HK notes

 

Box 6

  • 1993; Correspondence and Draft Materials: Yearly Through 1993 [letters, presentations, news articles, report drafts with HK notes, and statistical analyses with HK notes] [2 of 2].  Letters, presentations, news articles, report drafts with HK notes, and statistical analyses with HK notes
  • 1994; Amoco-EPA Pollution Prevention Project: Supplemental Report  [1 of 2]. Post-project evaluation, blowdown stack emissions measurement, refinery equipment fugitive emissions, evaluation of sediment in Bull Creek and the Settling Basins
  • 1994; Amoco-EPA Pollution Prevention Project: Supplemental Report  [2 of 2]. Drinking water well surveys, vegetation and wildlife inventory, references, appendices and data tables
  • 1994; Risk Reduction Benefits of Pollution Prevention Options. [HK notes: airborne exposure pathway analysis, waterborne exposure pathyway analysis, deposition pathway analysis, conclusions and recommendations, appendices]
  • 1994; Correspondence and Draft Materials: Yearly Through 1994 [letters, presentations, news articles, report drafts] (2 folders). [Letters, presentations, news articles, report drafts]

 

Box 7

Videos and Photograph Slides

  • 1990; An Environmental Partnership (VIDEO) (7:12 running time)   [Discussion of impact of plant practices and regulation, the nature of "environmental management," and presenting Yorktown as the example for the first time EPA looks at emissions at a real factory; NTSC VHS, PAL VHS, and digitized video available]
  • 1990; Yorktown Watermen (VIDEO) (14:56 running time) [roundtable discussion with employees; digitized and NTSC VHS available]
  • 1990; Yorktown Residents (VIDEO) (16:41 running time) [roundtable discussion with Yorktown residents about the refinery, pollution, and the impact of the Amoco-EPA study; digitized and NTSC VHA available]
  • 1990; WVEC & WTKR Yorktown News Footage: Amoco Rising Fuel Prices & Amoco and the EPA (VIDEO) [News footage discussion Amoco-EPA study in local Yorktown news; digitized and NTSC VHS available]
  • 1988-1994; Box of photograph slides. [Includes photographs of the  Amoco Yorktown Refinary in Yorktown, Va., the geographic and natural spaces around the refinery, scientists sampling areas around the refinery, discussion and rountable meetings, and graphs/documents related to the study] (37 slides)          

 

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Papers of Howard Klee re Amoco - U. S. EPA Pollution Prevention Project of Yorktown, Virginia, MSS 2012-04, Box Number, University of Virginia Law Library
 

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