Collection Summary

Creator: Tavenner, Frank S., Jr.
Title: The Personal Papers of Frank S. Tavenner, Jr. and Official Records from the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, 1945-1948
Accession: MSS 78-3
Description: This collection consists of 113 boxes and 23 cartons.
Location: This collection is stored offsite. Please contact Special Collections before your visit to ensure your papers are available.
Photograph Collection: View 0 digitized photographs
Digitized Content: 0 objects

Collection Description & Arrangement

Organization

Series I: The personal papers comprising the first 26 boxes cover the years 1946-1948 when Tavenner was counsel to the International Prosecution Section (IPS) of the IMTFE. During 1947, Tavenner was Acting Chief of Counsel, in the absence of Chief of Counsel, Joseph Keenan.

Subseries 1: Reports, memoranda, court documents, etc. Boxes 1-7 These files are arranged by month, and begin with documents compiled in late 1945 before Tavenner's arrival in Tokyo. The end in May 1948, with the conclusion of the trial. There are a variety of documents included within this group, but in particular, they include memoranda between prosecution counsel, letters, prepared reports, analyses of interrogations, court documents, arguments before the Tribunal, and miscellaneous material. The written reports and memoranda perhaps form the most interesting part of these papers are they give insight into the attitudes and approaches of the lawyers making up the IPS, particularly in 1947 when he was Acting Chief of Counsel during the absence of Joseph Keenan. International Prosecution Section Counsel were allotted subjects to research in an early point in the trial. Reference should be made to the memorandum dated 8 May 1946 concerning the division of work at that date. Revised presentation lists were drawn up as the trial progressed and as it became evident that the trial would take substantially longer than originally estimated. (See memoranda dated 28 June 1946 and 18 September 1946.) These materials almost entirely originated in the Legal Branch of the IPS, which there were four other branches. The prosecution case lasted from 4 June 1946 to 24 January 1947. The defense case began on 24 February 1947 and continued until 12 January 1948.

Sub-series 2: Materials on individual defendants. Boxes 8-9 Besides his other duties Travenner was given "overall charge of the preparation of the cases against individual defendants." (see Memorandum dated 4 December 1946 from Eugene Williams, Special Asst. to Chief of Counsel, to IPS Associate Counsel.) These materials include both dated and undated memoranda and reports. There are also lists of references made to the narrative summary of the record. Additional folders contain extracts from Kido's diary, with sections relating to each of the defendants; references to the narrative summary by name of defendant in reference to other defendants' cases; analyses of the defendants by the Russian division; rebuttal evidence of the prosecution and defense--order of proof.

Sub-series 3: IPS documents numbered 0-4095; complete. Boxes 10-12 The analyses of documentary evidence contained in Series II of the Tavenner collection should be studied in conjunction with these documents, together with the collection of exhibits and rejected documents which are also part of Series II.

Sub-series 4: Newsclippings. Box 13

Sub-series 5: Reports, memoranda, and miscellaneous materials relating to Japanese/German/Italian collaboration. Boxes 14-15 This is another phase for which Tavenner had special responsibility. The IPS counsel working with him were O. Hyde and W. McKinney. Apart from general notes, memoranda and reports, these materials include the prosecution case for this phase; seven volumes.

Sub-series 7: Material from the Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946). Box 19-21

Sub-series 8: Shipping, Trade, and Industry Reports. Box 22

Sub-series 9: Assorted maps used for reference purposes within the Legal Branch--China, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Box 23

Sub-series 10: Two boxes of miscellaneous materials, such as reports and/or summaries of proof for the prosecution's case, and a statement of Joseph Grew, former U.S. ambassador to Japan, in support of several of the defendants. Boxes 25-26

Series II: A near-complete set of official records of the Tribunal comprise the second series of this collection. Included are a nearly complete set of the transcript of the proceedings, a complete set of exhibits, a narrative summary of the record, several indexes, rejected documents, defense and prosecution summations, orders and rulings of the tribunal, and the judgment.

Arrangement

It is apparent that the collection is not in its original order probably due to the manner in which it was shipped to the United States at the conclusion of the trial. It has now been arranged as much as possible in chronological order, although many of the files contain undated reports and reference materials.

 

Biographical & Historical Information

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr. was born in Woodstock, Virginia in 1895. He took an A.B. degree at Roanoke College in 1916, an A.M. at Princeton University in 1917, and a LL.B at the University of Virginia in 1927, after which he began the practice of law in his home town. In 1933 Tavenner was appointed assistant U.S. attorney in the Western District of Virginia and in 1940, became U.S. attorney. Following World War II, he was assigned by the Department of the Army to be Counsel and later Acting Chief of Counsel, Prosecution section for the IMTFE from late 1945 to the end of the trial in 1948. From 1949 until the mid-1950's, Tavenner was Chief of Counsel for the House Committee on Un-American Activities. He died in 1964.

Acquisition Information

Date Received 1970
Donor Information Mrs. Tavenner donated the collection to the Law Library in 1971.

Content List

 

Boxes 1-26: Personal Papers 1946-1948.

Reports, memoranda, court documents, etc.

Box 1:

  • General Memos, Reports 1945
  • Indictment 1946

Boxes 1-3:

  • General Memos, Reports 1946.  [13 folders]

Boxes 4-7:

  • General Memos, Reports 1947.  [17 folders]

Boxes 4-6:

  • General Memos, Reports 1948

Box 7:

  • Memoranda on Saionji-Harada; Memoirs, 1947.  [2 folders]

Materials on individual defendants

Boxes 8-9:

  • Files on Defendants, 1946.  [14 folders]
  • Extracts from Kido's Diary, 1946
  • References in Narrative Summary
  • Analysis of Defendants [Russian Division]

IPS Documents numbered 0-4095; complete

Box 10

  • Reports, Summaries I.P.S. Documents

Boxes 10-12:

  • I.P.S. Documents 0-4095.  [7 folders] [See oversized maps in Box 23]
  • Unnumbered I.P.S. Documents

Box 13:

  • Newsclippings 1946-1948.

Reports, memoranda, and miscellaneous materials relating to Japanese/German/Italian collaboration

Box 14

  • Japan, Germany, Italy Documents, Reports

Boxes 14-15:

  • Japan, Germany, Italy Collaboration.  [8 folders]

Printed Material

Boxes 16-18:

Tokyo News; Economic News April 1947; August-December 1947; Jan. 1948; June 1948.  [14 folders]

Material from the Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946)

Box 19:

  • Nuremberg Memos, Reports 1945-1946
  • Nuremberg Prosecution Addresses 1945-1946
  • Nuremberg Rulings of Tribunal 1945-1946

Boxes 19-21:

  • Nuremberg Prosecution Vols. I & II 1945-1946.  [4 folders]
  • Nuremberg Decision and Judgement 1945-1946

Box 22:

  • Shipping, Trade and Industry Reports. [3 folders]

Box 23:

  • Maps [in oversized cabinet in Special Collections]

Miscellaneous materials

Box 24:

  • Selected Analyses of Documentary Evidence.  [3 folders]

Box 25:

  • American/British Phase Summary Proof
  • Relations between Japan, USA, UK and Philippines
  • China Phase
  • Manchurian Phase
  • Miscellaneous: Prisoners of War
  • Prosecution analysis of defense documents
  • Defense Documents: Reports, Exhibits 1947
  • Misc. Defense Documents: Memos, Reports
  • Hoshino Defense Materials 1946-1947
  • Joseph Grew--statement 1946 Oct.

Box 26:

  • Printed Material: Nazi-Soviet Relations
  • Miscellaneous: Japanese Nationalism, Militarism
  • Printed material: Events leading to WWII
  • Printed Material: Criminal Conspiracy-Japanese War Trials
  • Miscellaneous

Official Records of the Tribunal. Transcript of the Proceedings.

Box 27-44

  • Box 27, Vols. 1-7
  • Box 28, Vols. 8-13
  • Box 29, Vols. 14-19
  • Box 30, Vols. 20-25
  • Box 31, Vols. 26-31
  • Box 32, Vols. 32-37
  • Box 33, Vols. 38-43
  • Box 34, Vols. 44-49
  • Box 35, Vols. 50-55
  • Box 36, Vols. 56-61
  • Box 37, Vols. 62-67
  • Box 38, Vols. 68-73
  • Box 39, Vols. 74-79
  • Box 40, Vols. 80-85
  • Box 41, Vols. 86-91
  • Box 42, Vols. 92-97
  • Box 43, Vols. 98-103
  • Box 44, Vols 104-107 and Index of Defense Witnesses and Documents in Evidence and Partial General Index for the Defense Case, (1 vol.)

Boxes 45-51:

  • Narrative Summary of the Record with Referent Page Numbers; n.d.

Boxes 52-64:

  • Rejected Documents Arranged Numerically by Document Number, Defense Following Prosecution; n.d.

Boxes 65-101:

  • Exhibits, 1-3915 1946-1948. In numerical order

Box 102

  • "Decisions of Imperial Conferences, Liason Conferences, Privy Council Meetings, Cabinet Meetings, Four Ministers’ Conferences, Five Ministers’ Conferences, Senior Statement’s Meetings, Supreme War Plans Council, Joint Conferences and Miscellaneous Conferences.  As Found in the Prosecution's Evidence and Index," 1 vol., June 1947.

Boxes 103-108:

  • Analyses of Documentary Evidence: I.P.S. Documents 1-4090 1946 January 11-July 23. In numerical order
  • Analyses of Documentary Evidence: Analyses of 40 I.D.S. Documents 1947 April 8-1948 January 29.  In numerical order.

Box 109:

  • IMTFE Motions and Proceedings in Chambers, V ols. 2-3. Covering 1946-1947 but no in precise order chronological order.  [Vol. 1 appears to be missing].

Boxes 110-118:   Defense Summations divided into sections by subject, such as Conspiracy, International Law, Japanese-American Negotiations, etc; defense attorney responsible for each section is noted. n.d.

Box 110

  • Defense Summation Introductory Statement, Def. Doc. 3054, Section A (005571).  Chief Japanese Counsel: Dr. Somei Uzawa.
  • Summation.  Argument on Law. Answer of the Defense to Prosecution’s Argument on International Law, Def. Doc. 2987 (005572).  Dr. Kenzo Takayanagi, Counsel for Suzuki; George Francis Blewett, Eqr., Counsel for Tojo.
  • Defense Summations.  Analysis of the Indictment, Section C, Counsel: George Yamaoka; Conspiracy, Section D, Counsel: John G. Brannon; On Some Questions of International Law, Section E, Counsel: Ben Bruce Blakenay (005573).
  • Defense Summations for Manchurian General Phase and China Phase, Def. Doc. 3071, 3034, Section F and Section G (005575). [Counsels for Manchurian Phase]: A. W. Brooks, Toshio Okamoto; [Counsel for China Phase]: Masayoshi Kanzaki.

Box 111

  • Defense Summation: Russian Phase, Def. Doc. 3099, Section H (005576). [Counsels]: Ben Bruce Blakeney, George A. Furness, March 1948.
  • Defense Summation.  Japanese - German - Italian Relations, Def. Doc. 3104,  Section- I.  American Counsel: Owen Cunningham; Japanese Counsel: Fujio Uchida, Nobuhiko Uchiba, 3 -4-1948.
  • Defense Summation.  Japan was Provoked into a War of Self Defense, Def. Doc. 3095, Section J. [Counsels]: Masao Migita, Yoji Hirota, William Logan, Jr.
  • Defence [sic.] Document No. 3100, Section K (005579). IMTFE Summation for the Defence.  Japanese - American Negotiations. [Counsel]: Ben Bruce Blakeney; Of Counsel: Nishi Haruhiko, Niiro Katsumi, Kato Denjiro, Shichida Motoharu, March 1948.

Box 112

  • Defense Summation, Def. Doc. 3102, Sections L-1, L-2, Section M (005580).  Japan’s Military Preparedness, Not Aggresive in Nature. Counsel: George Francis Blewett, Ichiro Kiyose.
  • Defense Summation for Sadao Araki, Def. Doc. 3107, Section N-1 (005581). [Counsel]: Yutaka Sugawara, Takaaki Hasuoka.
  • Defense Summation on Kenji Dohihara, Def. Doc. 3103, Section N-2 (005582). American Defense Counsel: Frankline N. Warren, Chief Japanese Counsel: Kinjiro Ohta; Of Counsel: Takahisa Kato, Shigenaru Kimura, Tameo Hongo.

Box 113

  • Defense Summation for Kingoro Hashimoto, Def. Doc. 3008, Section N-3 (005583).  [Counsel]: Itsura Hayasi, Kunji Kanase.
  • Defense Summation for Shunroku Hata, Def. Doc. 3091, Section N-4 (004484)
  • Defense Summation for Kiichiro Hiranuma, Def. Doc. 3108, Section N-5 (005585).  American Counsel: F. E. W. Warren; Chief Japanese Counsel: Rokuro Usami.
  • Defense Summation on Behalf of Okinori Kaya, Def. Doc. 3110, Section N-9 (005541). American Counsel: Michael Levin; Japanese Counsel: Tsuruo Takano, Yasumicho Tanaka, Kenji Fujiwara.

Box 114

  • Defense Summation for Koichi Kido, Section N-10 (005542). [Counsel: Shigetaki Hozumi, William Logan, Jr., Tokyo, Japan, 3-6-1948.
  • Defense Summation for Heitaro Kimura, Def. Doc. 2928, Section N-11 (005543).  
  • Defense Summation Table of Contents; Reply Prosecution to Defense Summation
  • Defense Summation on Behalf of Kuniaki Koiso, Def. Doc. 3092, Section N-12.  American Counsel: Alfred W. Brooks; Japanese Counsel: Sammonji Shoshei, Takagi Kazuya, Saito Seiichi.
  • Defense Summation for Iwane Matsui, Def. Doc. 3096, Section N-13 (005544).  Counsel: F. J. Mattice; Kiyoshi Ito, Takayoshi Jodai.

Box 115

  • Defense Summation for Jiro Minami, Def. Doc. 2980, Section N-14 (005545).  Counsel: aA. W. Brooks; Toshio Okamoto.
  • Defense Summation for Akira Muto, Def. Doc. 3111, Section N-15 (005548).  Counsel: Roger F. Cole; Shoichi Okamoto, Seiji Hara, Chichiro Saeki.
  • Defense Individual Summation of Koki Hirota, Def. Doc. 3106, Section N-6 (005539).  American Counsel: George Yamaoka, Japanese Counsel: Hanai Tadashi, Shibusawa Shinichi; Of Counsel: David F. Smith.
  • Defense Summation of Naoki Hoshino, Def. Doc. 3112, Section N-Z (005586).  Counsel: Goichiro Fujii, Masao Migita, Reisuke Matsuda, G. C. Williams, J. C. Howard.

Box 116

  • Defense Summation for Seishiro Itagaki, Def. Doc. 3009, Section N-8 (005587).  Counsel: Henzo Yamada, Tomoji Sasagawa, Junkichi Banno, Floyf J. Mattice, March 1948.
  • Summation of Shiratori, Def. Doc. 3101, Section N-21 (005550), n.d.

Box 117

  • Summation of Teiichi Suzuki, Def. Doc. 3090, Section N-22 (005551). American Counsel: Michael Levin; Japanese Counsel: Dr. Kenzo Takayanagi, Michitaka Kaino, Ippei Kato.
  • Summation on behalf of the Defendant Shinegori Togo, Def. Doc. 3118, Section N-23 (005552). [Counsel]: Ben Bruce Blakeney; Of Counsel: Haruhiko Nishi, Katsumi Niiro, Denjiro Kato, Motoharu Schichida.
  • Summation of Takazumi Oka, Def. Doc. #2991, Section N-16 (005547). Counsel: S. Allen Roberts, Shinji Somiya, Seichiro Ona. [1948].
  • Summation Part I “in behalf of Hisroshi Oshima” Def. Doc. 3116, Section N-17 (005540).  American Counsel: Owen Cunnigham, Japanese Counsel: Tatsuki Shimanouchi, Fujio Uchida, Nobuhiko Ushioa.
  • Summation for the Defense.  Kenryo Sato Def. Doc. 3115, Section N-18 (005548).  Defense Counsel J. N. Freeman, H. Kusano.

Box 118

  • Summation for Shigetaro Shimada Def. No. 3113, Section N-20 (005549)
  • Defense Summation. 005553. Def. Doc. 2988, Section N-24. Tojo, Hideki.Kiyose,Ichiro, Japanese Counsel, George Francis Blewett, American Counsel. 347 pp.
  • Defense Summation. 005554. Def. Doc. 3119, Section N-25. Umezu Yoshijiro. Ben Bruce Blakenay,[American Counsel]; Miyata Mitsuo, Ikeda Sumihisa, Ono Kisaku, Of Counsel. April 1948.  100 pp.
  • Defense Summation on Personal Responsibility.  005574. Def. Doc. No. 3037. Kyoichiro, Kusano, Toshio Okamoto.n.d.; 35 pp, 3 errata sheets.

Boxes 119-121: Prosecution summation of Conspiracy, Summations re Each Defendant, and Prosecutions Reply to Defense Summation; n.d.

Box 119

  • Defense and Prosecution Summations.  Prosecution Summation of Conspiracy: Sections A-E (005560), F-G (005561), H-I (005562), J-K (005563), n.d. (4 folders).

Box 120

  • Prosecution Summation.  Introductory Statement by J. B. Keenan. 005555. Joseph B. Keenan, Chief Counsel, A.S. Comyns-Carr, Judge C. C. Hsiang, Pedro Lopez, Lt. Col. T. Mornane, Maj. Gen. W. C. F. Borgerhoff-Mulder, Brigadier H. C. Niolan, Mr. Robert Oneto, Brigadier R. H. Quilliam, Major General A. N. Vasiliev, Associate Prosecutors; Solis Horwitz of Counsel. N.d.,
  • Reply of Prosecution to Defense Summation.  Introduction.  005556, n.d.    
  • Reply of Prosecution to Defense Summation Part I.  005557, n.d.
  • Reply of Prosecution to Defense Summation Part II. 005558, n.d.
  • Reply of Prosecution to Defense Summation Part III.  005559, n.d.
  • Prosecution Summations Vol. 1: Araki, Dohihara, Hashimoto, Hata.  005564, 5 March 1948.
  • Prosecution Summations Vol. 2: Hiranuma, Hirota, Hoshino, Itagaki.  005565, n.d.

Box 121

  • Prosecution Summations Vol. 3: Kaya, Kido, Kimura, Koiso. 005566, n. d.
    Prosecution Summations Vol. 4: Matsui, Minami, Muto, Oka.  005567, n. d.    
    Prosecution Summation Vol. 5: Oshima.  005568, n. d.
    Prosecution Summations, Vol. 6: Sato, Shigemitsu, Shimada, Shiratori.  005569, n.d.
    Prosecution Summations, Vol. 7: Suzuki, Togo, Tojo, Umezu.  005570, n.d.

Box 122:

  • Chronological Summary of Prosecution's Evidence covering 1928-1945; an appendix breaks down by page number information on each of the accused; 1 vol. 1928-1945. 1 vol.

Box 123:

  • The United States of America, et als. v. Araki, Sadao, et als.  Orders by the Tribunal, [Proceedings and Motions], 1 volume. [1946]

Box 124:

  • The United States of America, et als. v. Araki, Sadao, et als.  Rulings of the Tribunal, organized under such headings as Affidavits, Argument, Cross-Examination, Evidence, Objections, and Witnesses; 1 bound vol.

Boxes 125-130:  Judgment of the IMTFE: majority, concurring and dissenting opinions. 1948 November

Box 125

  • Judgment.  IMTFE.  Part A, Chapters I, II, III: Establishment and Proceedings of the Tribunal, 11-1-1948.
  • Judgment.  IMTFE.  Part B, Chapter IV: The Military Domination of Japan and Preparation for War, 11-1-1948 (2 folders).
  • Judgment.  IMTFE.  Part B, Chapter V: Japanese Aggression Against China, Sections I and II, 11-1-1948
  • Judgment.  IMTFE.  Part B, Chapter VI: Japanese Aggression Against the U. S. S. R., n.d.

Box 126

  • Judgment.  IMTFE.  Part B, Chapters VII: The Pacific War, 11-1-1948w4
  • Judgment.  IMTFE.  Part B, Chapter VIII: Conventional War Crimes (Atrocities); 11-1-1948  (2 folders)
  • Judgment. IMFTE. Part C. Chapter IX: Findings on Counts of The Indictment; Chapter X: Verdicts; 11-1-1948 (2 folders)
  • Judgment. IMFTE. Annexes. (2 folders).

Box 127

  • Judgment. IMFTE: Separate Opinion of the President. U. S. A. V. Araki and Others, (010990); 11-1-1948.
  • Judgment. IMFTE: Dissenting Judgment of the Member from France of the IMTFE (010211), 11-12-1948.
  • Judgment. IMFTE: Concurring Opinion by the Honorable Mr. Justice Delfin Jaranilla, Member from the Republic of the Phulippines (010212), 11-1-1948
  • Judgment. IMFTE: The United States of America versus Araki Sadao and others.  Judgment of the Honorable Mr. Justice Pal, Member from India (010214), pp. 1-741 (2 folders).                                                                                                                  

Box 128

  • Judgment. IMFTE: The United States of America versus Araki Sadao and others.  Judgment of the Honorable Mr. Justice Pal, Member from India (010214), pp. 742-1049.
  • Judgment. IMFTE: Opinion of Mr. Justice Roling, Member from the Netherlands (010215), 11-12-1948.

Box 129

  • Judgment. IMTFE: Meeting (010216), Thursday 11-4-1948
  • Judgment. IMTFE: Meeting (010217), Friday 11-5-1948
  • Judgment. IMTFE: Meeting, Monday 11-8-1948

Box 130

  • Judgment. IMTFE: Meeting (010219), Tuesday 11-9-1948.
  • Judgment. IMTFE: Meeting (010220), Wednesday 11-10-1948
  • Judgment. IMTFE: Meeting (010221), Thursday 11-11-1948
  • Judgment. IMTFE: Meeting (010222), Friday  11-12-1948    

    
    

 

 

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Inventory of the Personal Papers of Frank S. Tavenner and Official Records from the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, 1945-1948, MSS 70-3, Box Number, Special Collections, University of Virginia Law Library.

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